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New Zealand Plant Protection 69 (2016): 246-251

Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass in New Zealand - a review

H. Ghanizadeh, K.C. Harrington and T.K. James


In 2013, three populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and two populations of Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) from five vineyards in New Zealand were confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate. The level of resistance in four populations was almost 10-fold while one population of perennial ryegrass (Population O) had a level of resistance greater than 30-fold. Quick tests for confirming the presence of glyphosate in ryegrass plants have been developed. Molecular and physiological investigations showed that there was restricted herbicide translocation in all studied populations and Population O also had a modification at Pro-106 of the EPSPS enzyme. It was also found that the restricted herbicide translocation can be suppressed under cool conditions. Further studies also showed that the gene causing restricted herbicide translocation could be readily transferred through pollen, and the gene was partially dominant. All glyphosate resistant populations were also resistant to glufosinate, and three of the populations were also resistant to amitrole.

Keywords: Italian ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, glyphosate resistance, mechanisms of resistance, inheritance, cross-resistance, weed management.

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