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New Zealand Plant Protection 68 (2015): 448

Splash dispersal of Botryosphaeriaceae species in Marlborough vineyards

A. Shafi, M.V. Jaspers, H.J. Ridgway and E.E. Jones

ABSTRACT

Botryosphaeriaceae species cause dieback and canker in many woody hosts including grapevines, with infection occurring when conidia are released during rainfall and splash borne to pruning and trimming wounds. This study monitored dispersal of naturally released conidia of Botryosphaeriaceae species in three Marlborough vineyards with a Burkard spore trap and rain water traps. Microscopic examination of the Burkard tape and trapped rain water confirmed the presence of Neofusicoccum and Diplodia spp. Species were identified on tape and in rainwater with single stranded conformational polymorphism as N. luteum, N. parvum/N.ribis, N. australe, D. mutila and D. seriata. To determine conidium dispersal distances, sporulating shoot lesions of N. parvum isolate B2141, for which an isolate specific marker was developed, were placed in one Marlborough vineyard before forecast rainfall periods. The rainwater traps were set up around the sporulating lesions at 0.5 to 20 m in the direction of the prevailing wind and 0.5 to 5 m in three other directions. After 2 days rain, Neofusicoccum sp. conidia were identified in the collected rainwater by microscope and with the isolate specific PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) for N. parvum B2141. This isolate dispersed up to 10 m in the wind direction and up to 1 m in the other three directions.

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